Critical Thinking Essay: Logical Fallacies

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December 2, 2013

critical-thinking-essay

Introduction

This discussion will delve deeper into a number of fallacies and understand their validity. The explanation of fallacies will be used to explain a number of observations in daily life. The fallacy concept will be used in the business line to make sense. This will include relating fallacies to situations. This will be instrumental in fostering a deeper understanding of the topic. The objective of fallacies is to gain an understanding of various concepts.

Appeal to person fallacy

The appeal to person fallacy is based on the idea of skeptical thinking about facts. In this kind of fallacy, no is sure about certain facts or events. This implies that people live with the current perceptions. They appreciate the perceptions despite the doubts involved. (Damer, 4).

This fallacy is evident, thanks to the mode of expression. The mode of expression tells more about a given issue. The expression used in the context is that of doubt. Doubt is a striking feature found in many fallacies. For a fallacy to be real, it is presumed that an element of doubt must exist. The element of doubt makes the statement more of a fallacy (Barbeau, 9). The appeal to person fallacy is associated with safety and security of the people. (Rene, 8).

Examples of appeal to person fallacy

Future predictions and plans: In this case people are not sure about the future
Events and activities which change the course of events.
A good example of the appeal to person fallacy is possible technological breakthroughs

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p8qKiisgux8
Appeal to tradition fallacy

The appeal to tradition fallacy involves held beliefs and attitudes by people. People have different preferences and tastes. The appeal to tradition is all about the cultural integration and patterns adopted by a group of people. (Gula, 5).

The fallacy associated with appeal to tradition is clearly illustrated. The appeal to tradition fallacy is a common fallacy that has been around for some time. The fallacy is based on the idea that if one eats bread, hair would grow on their chest. These were sentiments issued by grandmothers. It is imperative to note that this fallacy is an old tradition whose roots are still alive (Maxwell, 8).

The appeal to tradition fallacy is best demonstrated by marketing. When new products are introduced in the market, consumers would rather prefer the usual products. This is realistic from a consumer behavior perspective. Consumers feel safe and satisfied by consuming products that have been around. Despite efforts by the product company to advertise the product, people may be reluctant to change. Despite the resistance, people could start consuming the products with time. From this explanation, it is evident that people are used to tradition. Change happens at a very slow pace but takes root with time. This is the same case with the product market (Foley, 14).

There is an expression that humans are reluctant to change. Change is not received well in any spectrum of society. This is the reason why consumers would be lax to consume new products introduced in the market. Consumers start consuming new products after many days of advertising. Through advertising, the company is in a position to convince consumers about their products.

Examples of appeal to tradition fallacy
market consumer preferences
changing consumption patterns and trends

Appeal to fear fallacy

This fallacy is based on differentiated expressions towards certain things. This type of fallacy is based on traditions and beliefs held by people. Traditions cannot be changed without overcoming fear. An example of this fallacy is group conflicts on the international level (Maple, 2).

The appeal to fear is another fallacy. The appeal to fear fallacy is associated with young children. A good example of the fallacy is when parents tell their kids that lack of eating vegetables would affect their growth. Parents insist that lack of eating vegetables leads to weak children. Children love to eat and grow strong. This fallacy has been known to motivate kids in terms of observing their diet. Movies are a great way of expressing the appeal to fear fallacy. Horror movies bring a sense of fear to the audience. For example, a horror movie would make the viewer afraid of going into another room when alone. In this case, the fear observed in the movie is integrated in the psychological dimension of the individual (Montagu, 8).

Examples of appeal to fear policy

watching a horror movie
Taking a big risk

Appeal to ignorance fallacy

The appeal to ignorance fallacy is expressed by the mechanism through which information is hidden to a person. In this case, withholding the information is deemed necessary for the benefit of the individual. A good example is adoption. Many young children are adopted and live their lives without ever realizing anything. The parents who adopt them hide this information from them. It can be mentioned that this approach has worked for most families. Withholding such information is better than exposing it (Shabo, 9).

Appeal to ignorance is best explained by a person who is trying to help another person or a group of people. In this case, the people being assisted have no ability to see the situation on the ground. The people assisted perceive the helper as a traitor. This creates a form of resistance to the efforts of the person helping…”

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