“Introduction to Urban Planning
1. Transportation planning: induced demand. Think about traffic movement after some freeway constructions.
One of the key aspects that are being considered nowadays as part of Transportation Planning is “induced demand”. “Induced demand”, used particularly in transportation and urban planning perspective, is a phenomenon which focuses on how expansion of the transportation systems including construction of freeways, widening of roads, etc., instead of easing the traffic, would lead to more utilization by the users, thereby leading to more traffic congestions and urban sprawls. The freeway I-270, when laid in Washington, became the perfect example of “induced demand”, because after its construction greater number of people wanted to use it than earlier. With Washington becoming a highly congested area, people with their vehicles thronged this freeway and it led to more congestion on it. Likewise, Phoenix 40 also became a congested freeway due to further freeway additions, although it wanted to avoid those additions not wanting to become another Los Angeles. In addition, the semi-beltway which encompasses much of Phoenix Metropolitan area, Loop-101 sees heavy flow of vehicles and that causes a lock on the freeway, all due to “induced demand”.
2. Growth management: need, difficulty, and segregation issues. Home rules and local governance, and local political and cultural characteristics.
Growth Management, also known as Smart Growth, focuses on how communities and even governments try to limit the growth of particular territories by limiting the entry of new people and in the positive side by encouraging utilization of local resources. Since the late 1960s, many cities and towns are implementing growth management as a way to limit their growth. The positive connotation to this strategy was to encourage local technology and local control of resources, thereby leading to self-sufficient environment, which is the need of the current times considering how it will save a lot of resources. The difficulty in actualizing is, although maximum things can be sourced there, there will surely be certain essential things like emergency care, etc., for which people need to venture out. The negative implications of growth management is, it would discourage new set of people coming into the community, particularly the less privileged people, thereby leading to kind of segregation on racial and economic lines. In those cases, local government and its authorities need to play a constructive and ethical role to manage those segregations.
3. Structural Unemployment and why important for local economic development: local, regional and global phenomena
Structural unemployment is a type of unemployment under which the quantity of labor available in a particular geographical area could exceed the quantity of labor that is demanded. This mismatch could appear when the jobs available in a particular geographical area do not match the skills of the prospective employees living there, as well as vice versa…”
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