Classroom Management - Confronting and Solving Discipline Work Problems
The main aim of an able teacher is to produce confident, independent learners thorough a capacity for self assessment. In a way this is the focal point of this paper. However it is obvious that this paper is going to offer a succinct and research-based approach to managing classrooms and teaching discipline for grades k-12. Therefore, it is reverent to identify fundamental principles of effective management and discipline. This paper is to describe teacher characteristics, attitudes, and classroom conditions necessary for successful management principals and discipline with disciplinary measures. In a general sense Classroom management is a procedure that "is a term used by many teachers to describe the process of ensuring that lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behavior. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers and indeed experiencing problems in this area causes some to leave teaching altogether. It is closely linked to issues of motivation, discipline and respect. A large part of traditional classroom management involves behavior modification; that is, establishing rules and procedures at the beginning of the school year. It also involves being consistent in enforcing these rules and procedures. There needs to be positive consequences when rules are followed and negative consequences when rules are broken. There are newer perspectives on classroom management that are more holistic and comprehensive." (Wikipedia, 2005, 1, 1)
The general methods used in accordance to Classroom Management Principals are various and well formulated. One such method is the use of Delaney Cards. During the 60s and 70s it was a very popular method. In this context it would be relevant to mention the concept of Positive Classrooms put forward by famous educator DiGiulio. He enumerated the concept of classroom management using four major factors.
The first of these factors deals with spiritual dimension of the teachers in the context and perception of their students. The second factor deals with physical dimension where the focus is mainly laid down on the classroom environment. The third factor is the instructional dimension where the teaching skills of the teachers are taken into consideration. Lastly there is the factor of managerial dimension which is focused on dealing with addressing student behavior.
In this scenario of Classroom Management Strategy the most relevant text possible in this context would be the book by James S Cangelosi by the name of Classroom Management Strategies: Gaining and Maintaining Students' Cooperation, 5th edition. This book consisting of 416 pages is published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc in Feb. 6 2003. According to Amazon.com the book description reads as "Get the latest research in learning theory, student motivation, behavior modification, and more. This fifth edition equips educators with research-based principles and proven, real-world strategies for getting students to cooperate and keeping them on-task. You'll also learn how to accommodate the special needs of students with disabilities, work productively with students for whom English is not a first language, and take advantage of the cultural diversity in classrooms to enhance students' learning experiences." (Amazon.com, 2004, 1)
The book is divided into five parts. Part one deals with the Advanced Organizer where the main point or focal point is based on the Complex Art of Teaching. The second part is called Fostering Cooperation and Preventing Discipline Problems. Here the main concentration is based on Establishing a Favorable Climate for Cooperation and the methods of Establishing Cooperative Relationships. Furthermore it also deals with the Standards for Conduct, Routine Procedures, and Safe-School Policies. Additionally, this book also identifies the problem relating to the Working with Individual Differences among Students. The next part or part three is instrumental in methods used for Motivating Students to Engage in Learning Activities. Here it deals with the techniques of Motivating, Directing and Monitoring Engagement along with the usage of Designing and Conducting thereby Engaging Learning Activities.
The part four of this book is focused on the methods of Confronting and Solving Discipline Work Problems. It also enumerates the Approaching Off-Task Behaviors Systematically. Additionally this book also, in this part yield ideas about Modifying Off-Task Behavior Patterns and enables readers in Dealing with Nondisruptive Off-Task Behaviors. In the same context this book also helps in Dealing with Disruptive Behaviors in the sense that the very next chapter deals with these problems. The last and the concluding part of this five part book is the Making Classroom Management Strategies Work for You where the method of Incorporating Classroom Strategies into Your Teaching Style is discussed. (Cangelosi, 2003, 11)
It could be ascertained, going by the book, which for an education major this book can prove to be the most interesting and enjoyable book that deals with major educational theories. It is full of practical cases and there are lots of illustrations that are extremely helpful. Another aspect of dealing with the complex problem of Classroom Management strategies is the formulation of chapters in an illustrious manner. Furthermore, the "text's broad and systematic coverage of classroom management theory and practice incorporates the latest research in learning theory, student motivation, behaviour modification, and other dynamic fields of study. More than 300 cases drawn from a wide range of actual elementary, middle, junior high, and senior high school teaching experiences illustrate how to apply these strategies in real classroom settings. Research-based strategies and real-world examples provide students with the necessary information to create and maintain a productive learning environment. Chapters begin with a goal defined by a set of objectives. Synthesis activities at the end of each chapter reinforce concepts and allow readers to apply the knowledge they have gained. Transitional activities help readers to carry their knowledge from one chapter to the next." (Wiley Higher education, 2004, 1)
In this context it would be relevant to mention that Ms. Oberhuemer reveals in her work the definition of Early Childhood Professional classified into segments dependent upon the professional's global location. Specifically, efforts involved Denmark, the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden. Each location has separate identifiers for Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Professionals. The mention of key dimensions within the role of Early Childhood Professionals includes eight dimensions.
The types of education for each include Early Child Pedagogues in Finland, Sweden and Spain, focusing on children from birth to compulsory school age, approximately six years. The Preschool Specialist focuses efforts in Belgium, Greece and Luxembourg and concentrates efforts between ages two and six. A Teacher is the next division and would be found in France, Ireland and the Netherlands. This division concentrates efforts between ages three and twelve. The final division is Social Pedagogue and is found in Denmark, Germany, and Luxembourg and includes various educational working fields.
Factors that challenge effectiveness of early childhood education would be the many different styles of early childhood education professional and age levels for the students involved fluctuate greatly. Key dimensions for these conceptualizations include using dialogue with parents and providers and representatives for conceptualization. Professional practice should be presented and legitimated in front of a lay audience. Cooperative forms of management should be implemented and participatory roles should be developed for parents and others. Strategies to get fathers and minorities involved; link educational activities and community, self help programs for parents, cooperation between agencies; examining or experimenting with various approaches.